OK... I'm a new owner of a used Vulcan 500 (2000 model), and I recently tackled doing a valve adjustment.
I have a shop manual, which was helpful to a degree, but most helpful was the following link on how to do a valve adjustment on an EX500 (Ninja 500) engine...
and also this link,
The first link has good photos, just ignore all the Ninja cowling removal stuff, but follow all the other precautions...
Here are the steps I followed...
1. Remove the seat (1 bolt)
2. Remove the Speedometer (1 screw)(2 electrical connectors)(1 cable)
3. Disconnect the gas line and vacuum line at the fuel valve.
4. Remove the gas tank (2 bolts)
5. Drain the coolant system. (1 drain plug)
6. Remove the ignition coils and spark plug wires (4 bolts)
7. Remove the radiator fan, hang it out of the way. (6 bolts)
7a. remove the ignition switch bracket and let hang (2 bolts)
8. Remove the two coolant hoses to the head (2 screws)
9. Remove the valve cover bolts (6 bolts)
10. Carefully lift the valve cover off. Be careful as there are 2 small half inch long steel tubes (alignment pins?) inside the valve cover in the center that might pop out and fall someplace where you don't want them. They will either stick with the engine block, or stick with the cover as you remove the cover. Pay attention to them. Be careful with the valve cover gasket so you do not tear it, or you'll have to buy another.
11a. Remove the delicate copper oil feeder tubes so you won't accidentaly damage them during the valve adjustment.
11b. Adjust the valves as shown in the other references above.
.005" to .007" clearance on the intake valves
.007" to .009" clearance on the exhaust.
Clearances get smaller as your engine wears. I set mine to the larger side.
Reinstall the oil feeder tubes, clean the gasket surfaces, install the 2 little tubes (alignment pins?), and put everything back together. You'll have to apply a wee bit of RTV silicone to the valve cover gasket where it bumps out in four places. See the manual. Reassemble everythig else in reverse order.
It sounds and looks more complicated than it is. Take your time. Don't rush.
Hope this helps.